Locomotor system Splanchology Angiology Peritoneum and endocrine system Sensory organ Nervous system

  The Peritoneum


The Peritoneum is serous membrane in the body which covers on the inner surfaces of the walls of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and the outer surfaces of the vicera of the abdominal and pelvic cavities.

1 Division of the peritoneum : the parietal peritoneum and visceral peritoneum

2 The peritoneal cavity

3 The difference between the abdominal cavity and the peritoneal cavity

4 function: absorptive capacity , secretion, supportion and phagocytosis.

二、 The Relationship between viscera and peritoneum

1 The intraperitoneal viscera : completely surrounded by peritoneum

2 The interperitoneal viscera :  not completely wrapped

3 The retroperitoneal viscera : covered by peritoneum only on their anterior surface. Such as: the kidneys, ureters, suprarenal glands, pancreas, the middle and inferior parts of rectum, etal.


三、Structures formed by the peritoneum

1 The omentum

a.     the lesser omentum : include the hepatogastric ligament and hepatoduodenal ligament . Hepatoduodenal ligament enclose the proper hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein and common bile duct.

b.     the greater omentum : made up of four layers . begin from the the stomach and commencement of the duodenum and end the transverse colon .

c.     the omental bursa and omental(epiploic) foramen(Winslow foramen)

2.  The mesenteries and mesocolons

such as the mesentery (of the small intestine), mesoappendix , transverse mesocolon and sigmoid mesocolon

3. The ligaments

4. The peritoneal folds , recesses and pouches

a.     the rectovesical pouch in the male

b.     the rectouterine pouch (of Douglas) and vesicouterine pouch

5. Subdivision of peritoneal cavity



The  endocrine system


1 The composition of the endocrine system :the endocrine tissues and organs.

2 The endocrine tissues : The islets of Langerhans of pancreas, the ovarian follicles and corpora lutea of the ovary and the interstitial tissue of the testes

3 The endocrine organs : the hypophysis (pituitary), thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal (suprarenal) glands, the thymus and pineal body

4 The endocrine glands: no ducts . secrete hormones .

5 Function of the endocrine system : metabolism, development and growth , reproduction, et al.

二、The endocrine organs

1.     The hypophysis(pituitary gland)

a. location:  in the hypophysial fossa of the body of sphenoid bone

b. division:  adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis

c. function

2.     The thyroid gland

a. location: in the neck region with one lobe on either side of the larynx and trachea

b. structures : lateral lobes and isthmus

c. function: thyroxin

3. The parathyroid glands

a. location: lie on the dorsal surface of the lateral lobes of the thyroid

b. function: parathyroidin

4. The suprarenal (or adrenal) glands

a.     location : on the medial part of the kidney behind the peritoneum

b.     construction: outer cortex and inner medulla

c.     functions: steroid hormone and epinephrine(adrenalin) ,norepinephrine

5. The pineal body

a. location: protruding from the roof of the third ventricle of the diencephalon. b. function: secret melatonin

6. The thymus :located in the upper mediastinum posterior to the sternum

7. The pancreas

a.     location

b. the endocrine part of the pancreas : Langerkans (islets of pencreas)

c. function: produce insulin

8. The ovary:

the ovarian follicle(the endocrine tissues): produce estrogen

the corpus luteum :produce progesterone

9. The testis

   interstitial tissue : produce testosterone